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Quark Matter / Probing the valence quark region of nucleons with $Z$ bosons at LHCb

The unique forward coverage of the LHCb spectrometer allows the valence quark distributions of protons and nuclei to be probed with unprecedented precision. In this high-$x$ region, both the flavor content and structure of the nucleon's parton distribution functions remain relatively poorly known. New LHCb measurements of $Z$+charm jet production could be indicative of a valence-like intrinsic-charm component in the proton wavefunction, and measurements of $Z$ production in $p$Pb collisions provide new constraints on the partonic structure of nucleons bound inside nuclei. Here we will discuss these new LHCb measurements and comparisons with state-of-the-art parton distribution function calculations.

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